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:: A TYPE VIIC SUBMARINE: THE U-995 ::





The U-995 was launched the 22nd July 1943; she was a Type VIIC/41 submarine (an upgrade of the Type VIIC standard version, built with a stronger pressure hull that allowed for a deeper depth test and fitted with lighter machinery to compensate for the added steel in the hull). The only remaining U-995 in the world is exposed currently in the Laboe Naval Memorial, north of Kiel. Her wartime records account for six sinkings and the surrendered to Britain in the 8th May 1945. The U-995 was transferred to Norway (country invaded by Germany during the war) where she entered service in the 1th December 1952, renamed as Kaura. Decommissioned in 1965, the Kaura was returned to Germany, where in October 1971 she became a museum ship, perched on a sand beach, being known again as the U-995.

A view of the turret: four 20mm guns in a C38 mounting and a 37mm LM43U cannon; powerful anti-aircraft configuration to fight the increasing presence of the aerial anti-submarine threat during the second half of the Second World War.

U-995 turret

- Displacement (surfaced): 781 tonnes
- Displacement (submerged): 885 tonnes
- Lenght (external hull): 67.2 meters
- Lenght (pressure hull): 50.9 meters
- Beam (external hull): 6.85 meters
- Beam (pressure hull): 5 meters
- Draft: 5 meters
- Engines: two diesel 6-cylinder 4-stroke Germaniawerft M6V 40/46 (up to 3200 shp in total) and two electric motors (up to 750 shp in total)
- Speed (maximum): 17.7 knots while surfaced and 7.6 knots while submerged
- Range: 15170 km cruising surfaced at 10 knots; 150 km cruising submerged at 4 knots
- Test depth (maximum): 230 meters
- Crush depth: from 250 meters onwards
- Crew: 44/52 officers and ratings

U-995 cutaway diagram





Aft torpedo tube 1 - Aft torpedo tube.


Compressor 2 - Compressor.


Electric controls and auxiliary rudder 3 - Electric controls and auxiliary rudder. The electrical batteries installed on the submarine were a total of 127 elements of the type 33MAL800W of lead plates and 493 kg per item; 63 elements placed in the battery room astern and the other 64 in the battery room at prow.


Diesel engines 4 - Diesel engines.


Bunk beds in foremen's room 5 - Bunk beds in foremen's room.


Electric kitchen 6 - Electric kitchen. For washing and cooking seawater was used, while fresh water was reserved for drinking.


Valves and cranks for immersion tanks 7 - Valves and cranks to empty and fill the immersion tanks.


Steering wheels and depth indicators 8 - Steering wheels (for maneuvering hydrofoils) and depth indicators.


Exploration periscope 9 - Exploration periscope. Higher up, in the war room, a circular and vaulted chamber less that 2 meters tall, placed in the turret, just below the bridge, the commander gave orders through the electric megaphons or the air hoses, assisted in his task by a complex electric attack periscope, a computer for calculating headings and trajectories and the fire control system to arm and aim the torpedoes. The war room served as well as bedroom for the lieutenant engineer and a table covered in linoleum served for dining and meeting for the officers.


Entry to officer's room 10 - Entry to officer's room.


Officer's room 11 - Officer's room. The officer's room was the most spacious one on the submarine. The commander's chamber was the only space that had a certain degree of privacity, separated from the rest by a thick curtain; a desk fitted with a washbasin, a chair, a bed and wooden lockers, gave this space the biggest comfortability possible.


Radio and listening room 12 - Radio and listening room. In front of the commander's room, intentionally, was placed the radio and listening room; in this one, diverse devices occupied the space: the telegraph, the radio, the encrypter (Enigma), the hydrophones, the radar, the megaphons and the phonograph, used as a distraction.


Entry to toilet 13 - Entry to toilet. This second toilet at bow was fitted with a shower using seawater and this space was used occasionally as pantry... Not good.


Entry to bow torpedo room 14 - Entry to bow torpedo room.


Bow torpedo room 15 - Bow torpedo room. The torpedo room at prow is occupied by four torpedo tubes (533 mm), the devices for launching (operating with pressured air) and balancing the torpedoes, the crane for loading and moving the torpedoes, and twelve bunk beds and lockers for the crew.


Torpedo launching system 16 - Torpedo launching system. The submarine carried up to 14 torpedoes: five contained in the launching tubes, six at prow placed in the lower part, one astern placed in the lower part between the engines and another two placed externally to the pressure hull in watertight containers at prow and astern.




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